Monthly Archives: August 2013

Alhambra – Colourful Impressions

William Harvey Drawing of the Alhambra

William Harvey Drawing of the Alhambra

Quote - Owen JonesThe distressed, time-worn colour palette on view at the Alhambra is right on trend (although, dare I say it, a waning trend). Traces of the once rich, vibrant paint colours create a sense of faded grandeur throughout the royal palaces.

Alhambra Colour 3 Photo Cropped  Victor Ovies | Flickr

NOW. Photo: Victor Ovies | Flickr

Photo: Phillip Clapper | Flickr

NOW. Photo: Phillip Clapper | Flickr

Photo: Phillip Capper | Flickr

NOW. Photo: Phillip Clapper | Flickr

Alhambra Colour 6 Photo Cropped FèlixGP | Flickr

NOW. Photo: FèlixGP | Flickr

Thanks to the work of British architect Owen Jones (1809-74) and French architect Jules Goury (1803-34), as well as others, we can see what the interior colour schemes likely were during the Nasrid dynasty.

In 1834, Jones and Goury visited the Alhambra, studying and making extensive sketches of its tile patterns, stucco-work and architectural features. Six months after arriving in Granada, Goury died from cholera. The grieving Jones immediately travelled back to England. He returned to the Alhambra in 1837 and completed the research. Jones published the work in a set of volumes called Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra.  They were the equivalent of today’s shelter magazines, with newly developed techniques in colour printing exposing the Alhambra’s beauty to all. The meticulously coloured lithographs attest to the artistry of Jones.

Window Hall of the Two Sisters, Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra 1845, Jones and Goury

THEN. Window Hall of the Two Sisters, Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra 1845, Jones and Goury

The first volume, issued in 1842, generated a great deal of debate in Victorian society about the virtues of Moorish design (the lifestyle of the Moors was thought to be rather risque). Given the deep colour schemes that became popular during the era, it seems to me, that they at least embraced the colours preferred by the Moors.

With a few exceptions, the prints do not depict the colours that Jones, Goury and others actually saw when they visited the Alhambra. Rather, what their research indicated the colours would have been during the Nasrid dynasty. This new information added to the buzz created when the prints were issued. Describing the harmonious colour scheme illustrated above, Jones writes,

“On molded surfaces, they placed red, the strongest colour of the three, in the depths, where it might be softened by shadows, never on the surface; blue in the shade and gold on all surfaces exposed to light; for it is evident that by this arrangement alone could their true value be obtained.” – The Grammar of Ornament, p.72

The soft teal and green remnants that decorate the stucco today, were once brilliant blues. The colour transformation is the result of metals in the blue pigments oxidizing. Jones also concluded that under Catholic-rule, decorative elements were repainted in purple and green. For the most part, visitors today see only ivory-coloured walls, as layers of whitewash added over time conceal all but traces of the original primary colour-scheme.

Alhambra Colour 2 Photo Cropped Sara Delgado | Flickr

NOW. Photo: Sara Delgado | Flickr

Jones Chromolithograph Column

Plate 38, Actual State of the Colors, Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra, Goury & Jones

From an aesthetic perspective, the Alhambra’s colourfully tiled and stuccoed rooms must have created quite an impression on visitors to the Nasrids’ courts. Imagine the utter opulence of rooms filled with the luxurious hand-loomed silk fabrics and magnificent hand-woven carpets of that time.

Model showing the Qalahurra Nuevw of Ysuf I; Interior of the Alhambra, Enrique Linares 1890 V&A Museum

THEN. Model showing the Qalahurra Nuevw of Ysuf I; Interior of the Alhambra, Enrique Linares 1890 | V&A Museum

Nasrid 14th century silk lampas weave textile fragment & wool early 15th c Murcia region carpet | Metropolitan Museum of Art

Nasrid 14th century silk lampas weave textile fragment & early 15th c Murcia region wool carpet | Metropolitan Museum of Art

Doorway Photo: Bartek Miskiewicz | Flickr

NOW. Photo: Bartek Miskiewicz | Flickr

Today, even in her faded glory, the Alhambra is still a lady with a lot of soul.

 

Added to My Reference Library Wish List:

  1. The Grammar of Ornament, Owen Jones. (not a reprint, so will likely remain on the wish list for a long time)
  2. The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain, Maria Rosa Menoca.

 

Alhambra – Timeless Traditions

Photo: Carlos Blanco | Flickr

Photo: Carlos Blanco | Flickr

Colourful tiles are found throughout the Alhambra (an earlier post about the site is here). You see them around doors, on floors, covering window seats, on walls forming dados, and in plenty of nooks and crannies. Patterns mix with patterns and borders decorate borders. While I wouldn’t mix it up like this in my home, I think the rhythmic, geometric designs have a pleasing impact.

Photos, clockwise from top left: Me, arcticpenguin, Roberto Venturini, Roberto Venturini,Me, Roberto Venturini,,Börkur Sigurbjörnsson, Roberto Venturini, Center: Camelia TWU |Flickr (all but Me)

Photos, clockwise from top left: Me, arcticpenguin, Roberto Venturini, Roberto Venturini, Me, Roberto Venturini, Börkur Sigurbjörnsson, Roberto Venturini, center: Camelia TWU |Flickr (all but Me)

The mosaic-like tilework is called zillij (or zellige). The centuries-old techniques used to create it are passed from one generation to the next. The video below, From Clay to Mosaics, provides a fascinating overview of how zillij panels are created.

It’s astounding how the craftsmen, using large chisel-headed hammers and steel anvils, gently tap out the small multi-sided shapes from the glazed-tiles.  My amazement grew when seeing how the furmah fit precisely together. Assembly of the shapes to create the geometric mosaic panels looks almost like putting together a jigsaw puzzle. There is one key difference, the pieces are placed face down.Source: Habibi Interiors

After watching the video for the umpteenth time (yes, I truly find the work fascinating), it occurred to me that both the processes followed and the designs created have rhythm.

Other Links:

The Pattern in Islamic Art website has photos, diagrams and reference links of that may be interest to the design community, art historians, art aficionados, as well as the curious. A related-site found here provides digitalized patterns, along with geometry and other reference notes.

Added to My Reference Library Wish List:
  1. Zillij: The Art of Moroccan Ceramics, by Salma Samar Damluji
  2. Islamic Geometric Patterns, by Eric Broug
  3. Soon to be released, Islamic Geometric Design, Eric Broug

Alhambra – Reflecting on Symmetry

“It is a palace in which magnificence is shared
among its ceiling, its floor and its four walls;
on the stucco-work and on the glazed tiles there are wonders,
but the carved wooden ceilings are even more extraordinary;
these were all united and their union gave birth to the most perfect
construction in the place where the highest mansion already stood;
they seem poetic images, paronomasias and transpositions,
the decorative branches and inlays.”

-excerpt from an inscription in the Tower of the Captive

Alhambra Spain Court of the Myrtles

The pool in the Court of the Myrtles provides a wonderful reflection of the Royal Palaces.

It is only fitting, as one used to working with mathematics and “the details,” that I launch my blog with a look at the decorative designs of the Alhambra. This UNESCO World Heritage site, in Granada, Spain, is highly embellished with calligraphic script, arabesque and geometric patterns. The complex patterns used suggest the palaces’ designers and artisans were quite skilled in mathematics. While the elaborate decorations cover most surfaces of the compound’s buildings and gardens, the repetition and symmetry used in the designs establish a soothing sense of order.

Alhambra Spain

Looking through the archway into Patio of the Gilded Room, or Patio del Cuarto Dorado, one sees a beautifully symmetrical façade. Symmetry found not only in the architecture, but also in the patterns of the stucco and tile work.  Intricate fretwork panels cover the windows of the upper chambers. Inscriptions, floral motifs and geometric shapes embellish the walls. Despite the visual symmetry of the architecture, the doors lead to two different areas of the palace.

The photo below shows the variety of decoration covering small areas. Finely detailed floral and fern motifs are combined with geometric shapes, then bordered by flat, intertwining ribbons. An ornately scalloped edge trims the top and bottom of the arch.

Alhambra Spain

Archway at the Alhambra Palace. Photo: Yves Remedis | Flickr

Many inexpensive materials were used to create the Alhambra’s decorative elements. It was the remarkable skill of the craftspeople that transformed the stucco and wood into stunning artworks.

Costly, white marble is found throughout the Patio of the Lions. Over one-hundred white marble columns grace this courtyard. Inscriptions and vegetal motifs wrap the columns’ imposts. The open, lattice-like fretwork creates a sense of fragility and weightlessness. Dripping from the fretwork is a stalactite-shaped border. Surprisingly, detailed translations completed on the inscriptions found throughout the compound show only a small percentage are scripture from the Qur’an. Most are descriptions, slogans, advice to visitors and praises to the monarch in charge at the time of construction.

Photo: Sara Lynne Moffatt

In hundreds of years from now, or even just decades, could you imagine praises being given to our modern-day inexpensive version of wood, MDF?  Arabesque and geometric patterns decorate the intricately carved wooden ceilings and doors seen throughout the Alhambra. The beautifully symmetrical door shown below would have required many hours to plan and hundreds of hours to carve. The outcome is truly luxurious.

Alhambra Spain

The coffered wooden ceiling of the Palacia Carlos V is classic Renaissance style. The square ceiling design echoes that of the newel cap and other staircase elements. Construction on this palace started in the early 16th century. Work on the building was abandoned and only completed in the mid-twentieth century.

Alhambra Spain Carlos V Palace Wooden Coffered Ceiling

In the earlier palaces, star shapes are often used in the ceiling ornamentation, creating a starry night sky within the palace.

Alhambra Spain

Photo: axmiller | Flickr

You will find the octogram-shaped cupola shown below in the The Hall of the Abencerrages. It’s decorated with thousands of muqarnas (Scrabble players take note). Again, complex geometry forms the basis of the design. Another elaborate example of muqarnas is found in the Hall of the Two Sisters.

Movements of light and shadow across the arches and walls bring ever-changing vistas to the Court of the Myrtles (Patio de los Arrayanes). Can you imagine sitting by the pool on a warm summer day, relaxing and reflecting on life’s beauty?

Alhambra Spain Court of the Myrtles

I visited the Alhambra several years ago. It was an unusually cold December day. I arrived at the site as the sun came up. Despite my lack of warm clothing, I stayed until dusk, captivated with the site.

The official La Alhambra y Generalife site provides very detailed visitor information. If you visit the Alhambra, pay close attention to the times printed on your timed-ticket. The site is very strict about adherence to those times during both the high and low tourist seasons.